Aug 23 (Reuters) – Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has killed tens of thousands of people around the world in the 18 months since it was launched on Feb. 24, 2022, displaced millions and sowed economic turmoil.
Here are some details of the effect:
The war caused deaths at a level not seen in Europe since World War II.
By the end of July over 9,000 civilians were recorded as dead and over 16,000 wounded, The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), which said it believes the actual figure is substantially higher.
About 500,000 soldiers were killed or wounded in the war, according to The New York Times.
The paper quoted US officials supporting Ukraine as saying about 120,000 Russian troops were killed and 170,000 to 180,000 wounded, with Ukraine’s military toll at 70,000 killed and 100,000 to 120,000 wounded.
Russian officials say U.S. estimates of Russian losses are too high — and propaganda. Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu said on September 21 that 5,937 Russian soldiers had been killed since the start of the war. No further updates have been provided and the loss is a state secret.
Ukraine has not said how many of its soldiers have been killed and says its military casualties are a state secret because they affect battlefield strategy.
Reuters was unable to verify the tolls on either side.
Conflict erupted in eastern Ukraine in 2014 after Russian-backed forces fought the Ukrainian armed forces, after Ukraine’s Maidan revolution toppled a pro-Russian president and Russia annexed Crimea.
About 14,000 people were killed there between 2014 and the end of 2021. OHCHRincluding 3,106 civilians.
The UN refugee agency says millions of Ukrainians have been forced from their homes since the 2022 invasion. Ukraine has a population of over 41 million.
a Approximately 17.6 million people Urgent humanitarian aid is needed in Ukraine, with more than 5 million people internally displaced by the war, UNHCR said.
More than 5.9 million refugees from Ukraine have been recorded across Europe, according to Company information.
Russia has occupied 11% of Ukraine since the start of the war, an area equivalent to Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Connecticut. Belfer Center at the Harvard Kennedy School.
When added to Crimea, which Russia annexed from Ukraine in 2014, Russia now controls about 17.5% of Ukraine, an area of about 41,000 square miles (106,000 sq km).
After pushing Russian forces back in 2022, it has failed to make major moves against Russian troops well dug in since launching a new counteroffensive in early June.
Ukraine has lost part of its coastline, its economy has been crippled and some cities have been turned into wastelands by the war.
Ukraine’s economy is projected to contract by 30% in 2022 and grow by 1% to 3% this year, according to the International Monetary Fund.
It is unclear how much Ukraine has spent on the war.
Russia’s spending on the war is a state secret, but it coincides with a major blow to the Russian economy from Western sanctions imposed after the invasion.
The economy has defied initial expectations of a double-digit contraction in 2022, but a return to prosperity is far from over as the government directs more spending on the military.
Russia’s economy will grow by 1.5% this year, according to the International Monetary Fund, after contracting by 2.1% in 2022.
“In the medium term, Russia’s economy will be hampered by the exit of multinationals, the loss of human capital, its disconnection from global financial markets, a reduction in its policy buffer,” IMF spokeswoman Julie Kozak said last month.
“And so, we expect in the medium term that output in Russia will be 7 percent lower than pre-war forecasts.”
Russia has doubled its 2023 defense spending target to more than $100 billion – a third of all public spending – an official document reviewed by Reuters showed, as the cost of the war in Ukraine spirals and puts increasing pressure on Moscow’s finances.
As Russia’s military spending rises and sanctions reduce its energy revenues, Moscow faces a battle to keep its budget deficit under control.
Russia has lost a large share of the European gas market but has been able to continue selling its oil on world markets, even as the US, Europe and other powers have limited or ended their purchases.
It is excluded from Western financial markets, most of its oligarchs are affiliated, and it is having trouble sourcing some items such as microchips.
CIA Director William Burns said earlier this year that Putin risked turning Russia into “an economic colony of China over time.”
Russia defaulted on its foreign bonds for the first time since the disastrous months following the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution.
The invasion of Russia and Western sanctions have driven up the prices of fertilizers, wheat, metals and energy, fueling a wave of inflation and a global food crisis.
Russia is the world’s second largest oil exporter after Saudi Arabia and the world’s largest exporter of natural gas, wheat, nitrogen fertilizers and palladium.
In the immediate aftermath of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, international oil prices hit their highest level since a 2008 record.
* Western weapons
Since the invasion The United States has pledged More than $43 billion in security assistance to Ukraine, including Stinger anti-aircraft systems, Javelin anti-armor systems, 155mm howitzers and equipment to defend against chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear attacks.
Ukraine’s biggest overall backers in nominal terms are the United States, the European Union, Britain, Germany and Japan, respectively Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
Russia says arms supplies to the West are fueling the war.
Reporting by Guy Faulconbridge; Edited by Philippa Fletcher
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As Moscow bureau chief, Guy directs coverage of Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Prior to Moscow, Guy led Brexit coverage as London bureau chief (2012-2022). On Brexit night, his team delivered a historic victory to Reuters – the first to report Brexit news to the world and financial markets. Guy graduated from the London School of Economics and began his career as an intern at Bloomberg. He spent over 14 years covering the former Soviet Union. He speaks fluent Russian. Contact: +447825218698